Wilson is a political scientist interested in human behavior. In the past his work focused on political history and the design of political institutions -- especially the U.S. Congress in the pre-Federal and early-Federal period. His current work focuses on human cooperation and conflict. Of special interest are the evolutionary, biological, and neurological foundations of human behavior.
Wilson teaches courses on the U.S. Congress, Common Property Resources, Institutional Analysis and Design, Evolutionary Psychology, and Behavioral and Experimental Politics.